No longer is sleep considered as a passive condition or as an absent of wakefulness. Brain cell activity is not inhibited, but reorganized in sleep. Cells of the cerebral cortex in sleep are united in synchronized activity (chorus), while in wake state some cells are inhibited, and some are active.
It has been shown that sleep is essential for adaptation to stress and to learning. Consolidation of short-term memory in long term takes place in sleep.more...
Glucose control mechanisms
In fasting conditions, pancreas alpha-cells produce glucagon, a hormone that causes liver to release glucose from glycogen. It is a defense mechanism against hypoglycemia (a low level of glucose). Hypoglycemia stimulates brain stem and hypothalamus.. This stimulation increases food intake  and inhibit insulin secretion. .more...
How does neural cell work?
A neuron reminds a tree with thousands of branches. Numerous dendrites receive messages from thousand of neurons. Neural cell interprets them somehow and send a response in form of action potential through the only one axon, which forms synapses on the next neural cell, muscle cell, or gland cell, etc. more...
What is metabolic syndrome?
The World Heath Organization (WHO) definition of the metabolic syndrome requires the presence of type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or insulin resistance, and at least two of the following: hypertension, obesity, raised triglycerides or low HDL cholesterol and microalbuminuria. more...
SURFACTANT SPECIES AGAINST ICING
Surface icing problems are acute in Russia. Researchers suggest that aluminium constructions should be protected from ice formation via covering them by silicon dioxide and surfactant species. Further information: Irina Kireenko, chief production Full Text
PROBLEM OF OZONE
A lot of people who love to rest in the mountains are enticed, among other things, by clear air. They do not suspect that it can contain ozone in the concentration dangerous to health. The problem investigation has been sponsored by the Russian Foun Full Text
NANOSOMAL DRUG FORMS - NEW POTENTIAL OF KNOWN SUBSTABCES
Russian researchers are developing drug forms that can significantly improve the action of known substances. The finest particles of an innocuous polymer enable to increase the drug efficiency, to reduce its toxicity, and if necessary, to deliver the Full Text
ULTRA-STRUCTURAL REARRANGEMENT IN RECEPTOR CELLS OF OLFACTIC ANALYZER IN FISHES AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF REPRODVCTIVE BEHAVIOR
Considerable role in the organization of animal behavior belongs to external metabolites that could carry meaningful message and perform chemo-communicative function.
Blood Pressure Regulation and Hypertension
Extracellular liquid volume, vascular system capacity and ion concentrations. From physics, you may remember that if you force a gas inside a metal box, the greater volume of gas that you pumped into and the smaller the volume of the box, the greater gas pressure is observed inside the box. You can squeeze 10 liters of gas into a liter box. You can calculate gas pressure using the Ideal Gas Law more...
A human body energy balance depends on the amount of consumed food and energy expenditure. Amount of food we consume depends on one's appetite and activity of the rewarding system. Brain rewarding system is responsible for pleasure. The rewarding system is activated during eating. That is why, even if we are not hungry, we still eat for pleasure.
The hypothalamus is a main brain structure responsible for appetite control and energy expenditure. There are many neuronal circuits, which stimulate appetite and reduce energy expenditure and many neuronal circuits, which suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. more...
Piracetam improves memory and enhances cognitive functions
Piracetam improves brain functions by different mechanisms. It improves mitochondrial function, improves metabolism of glucose, and restores cell membrane alteration in the aging brain. It increases density of the cholinergic and glutamate receptors that are related to learning and memory.more...
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